Last updated 2018-09-16 21:04:32




1s. მე ჩემი
2s. შენ შენი
3s. ის (ი)მისი
1p. ჩვენ ჩვენი
2p. თქვენ თქვენი
3p. ისინი (ი)მითი


  near far
sg აქ ის
pl ესინი ისინი


In many cases, the final in the NOM are removed, ex. გაკვეთილი:lessonგაკვეთილები:lessons.

functions as the 3sg copula, meaning that "is" in a simple sentence like "She is a girl", "is" is attached to the noun. Using this example, rather than ის არის გოგო (არის:is.3sg.PRS), instead one can say ის გოგოა. When attached to an adjective, it is equivalent to "it is", ex. კარგია:it is good
"the euphonic ა", it is attached to some words, such as არ:negative marker, in front of one syllable words. Ex, არა ვარ:I am not.
adverbializer, ex. კარგი:goodკარგად:well. Drop the final if exists and add ად, otherwise, keep the final vowel and add . This form is used for languages as well, ქართულად:in Georgian.
plural, ex. გაკვეთილი:lessonგაკვეთილები:lessons
for, around/about, follows case marking. This is mutually exclusive with object markings on verbs (ex. -უ-). Can be used with POSS pronouns, ex. ჩემთვის:for me.
on, about, ex. მაგიდაზე:on the table
to, in, into, takes DAT, ex. მანქანა:carმანქანაში:in a/the car
too, also, ex. მეც:me too.Vogt §2.199 Can only be attached to pronouns. It is also makes a question word into a relative pronoun.
frequency; number of times
in front, ago
  1. ორი დღის დროში
    in two days

Grammatical Cases

the nominative case, it is unmarked (i.e the default dictionary case)
GEN (ი)ს
the genitive case, used with certain prepositions or grammar structures
the dative/accusative/possesive case, usually used to indicate the object of a transitive verb
ERG მ(ა)
the ergative case, this is used with some verbs
the instrumental case, used to mark a noun that is used to do a verb (ex. I rode the bus-, because the bus is the "instrument" used to ride)
ADV (ა)დ
the adverbial case, often fixed phrases, it is the equivalent of "as an X". For example, "As a student-, I dislike homework".
VOC (ვ)
the vocative case, it's uncommon now, used to call to a person, or poetically, to a noun ("oh spring-!). The final -ვ is optional.


Verbs, when listed, are listed with the "verbal noun" form, also referred to as the masdar. This is a common dictionary form, but some other dictionaries/phrasebooks may list other forms.

Regular Verbs

Personal pronouns can be dropped in Georgian, as pronomial indicators person are attached directly to the verb. Verbs take one of two forms of indicating person, either ვ-series or მ-series.

The object of the sentence can also be indicated in the verb construction too. This quite complicated and the only example I know right now is -უ-:2nd person object, in მე უეს ვურეკა:I am calling Wes.

Present Tense - ვ-series

  sg pl
1 ვ+stem ვ+stem+თ
2 stem stem+თ
3 stem+ს stem+ენ

An example of the verb to do:კეთები, stem: აკეთებ

  sg pl
1 აკეთებ აკეთებ
2 აკეთებ აკეთებ
3 აკეთებ აკეთებენ

Present Tense - მ-series

  sg pl
1 მ+stem გვ+stem
2 გ+stem გ+stem+თ
3 stem stem+თ

An example of the verb სურვილი:to want; to wish, stem: სურს. (This might be considered irregular due to the 3pl)

  sg pl
1 სურს გვსურს
2 სურს სურ
3 სურს სურ

Irregular Verbs

ყოფმა - to be
Present Indicative
  sg pl
1 ვარ ვართ
2 ხარ ხართ
3 არის არისნ
Past Tense
  sg pl
1 ვიყვი ვიყვით
2 იყივი იყივით
3 იყო იყვნენ
Future Tense
  sg pl
1 ვიქნები ვიქნებით
2 იქნები იქნებით
3 იქნების იქნებიას
ქონა - to have (inanimate object)

GEN subject.

Note: მანქანა:cars are considered animate.

Present Indicative
  sg pl
1 მაქვს გვაქვს
2 გაქვს გაქვთ
3 აქვს აქვთ
Verbs of going

Verbs of "going" are comprised of a directional prefix, the verb to be, and დი.

Directional prefixes include:

An example of the conjugation would be, მივდივარ:I go

მივდივარ {
მო დი ვარ
directional prefix 1sg marker "go" to be.1sg
  sg pl
1 მივდივარ მივდივართ
2 მიდიხარ მიდიხართ
3 მიდის მიდიან

Note the irregular 3pl.

  1. საიდან მოდიხარ?
    Where are you coming from?
    საიდან:whence can be thought of as sort of like სად:where + დან:from


Verbs can be negated in Georgian in two ways, with არ and ვერ. ვერ implies an inability to complete the action, whereas არ is simply that the action didn't occur. Compare below:


Expressing Purpose

Purpose can be expressed with the a future participle, most commonly with the future participle in the adverbial case. The future participle is formed by prefixing the root with სა- and the adverbial case is formed with -ად. Using მოგზიურობა:to travel, we get სამოგზიუროდ:for the purpose of traveling. -დ is used here because the root ends in a vowel.

In many cases, and expecially when in the adverbial case, the word can be thought of like the English infinitive.Harris, 155

Occasionally, სა- may occur after the first syllable, such as დალევი:to drinkდასალევად. დასალევად implies drinking alcohol (much as saying "We're going drinking" in English implies the same).

Question Words

what. When combined with adjective with -ა, it means "how X!" as in "how cute!".Kiziria, 49
რა ღირს
how much
where, derivative საიდან:whence, from where. Both derive from the same სა- interogative pronomial stem. See Klimov 161-162.
from where, often when asking from country of origin
how many
how many times (see +ჯარ in the suffixes)
რა ღირს
how much
  1. როგორა ხარ?
    How are you?
  2. ვინ არის ეს?
    Who is this?
  3. რა საინტერესოა!
    How interesting!
  4. რომელი საათია?
    What time is it?
    note the 3sg suffix
  5. რომელ საათზე?
    At what time?


See also the Wikipedia page.

Cardinal Numbers

0 — ნული
1 — ერთი
2 — ორი
3 — სამი
4 — ოთხი
5 — ხუთი
6 — ექვსი
7 — შვიდი
8 — რვა
9 — ცხრა
10 — ათი
20 — ოცი

Teens are formed by + 1-9 - + მეტი, ex. 11 → + ერთ + მეტითერთმეტი. Some initial consonants merge with the initial თ, such as + .

11 — თერთმეტი
12 — თორმეტი
13 — ცამეტი
14 — თოთხმეტი
15 — თხუთმეტი
16 — თექვსმეტი
17 — ჩვიდმეტი
18 — თვრამეტი
19 — ცხრამეტი

Anything over 20 is base 20, using 2/3/4 x 20 as the basis. Thus, base - + და + 1-19.

20 — ოცი
21 — ოცდაერთი
40 — ორმოცი
47 — ორმოცდაშვიდი
60 — სამოცი
80 — ოთხმოცი

Ordinal Numbers

1st - პირველი

2-19: მე + # - + . Ex. 13th:მეცამეტე.

20+: base + ordinal version of 1-19 (1 reverts back to ერთი for these numbers). Ex. 21st:ოცდამეერთე.


The Georgian week starts on Monday.

General time expressions (in the morning, in the evening, on Monday, etc.) are marked with the POSS, thus morning:დილაin the morning:დილის

Full hours are simply with the cardinal number plus is # hours:საათია. The exception is 1 o'clock is "1st hour", პირველი საათია. Thus, 2 o'clock:ორი საათია.

Minutes within hours can be expressed literally as "1 hour + 15 minutes", but that sounds unnatural. Instead, minutes should be given relative to the hour that owns them – in Georgia, the "owning" hour is the hour that has yet to pass on the clock. So a time like 1:35, all of those 35 minutes below to 2, since 2 has not yet been hit on the clock.

This ownership is expressed in two different ways, depending on if it's before or after the 30 minute mark.

hour's (POSS +ს) + #, so 1:24 would be "2's 24 minutes", thus ორის ოცდაოთხი
hour's (POSS +ს) + half:ნახევარი, ex. 1:30 = 2's half = ორის ნახევარი
hour (DAT -ი +ს) + lacks + #, so 1:50 would be "2 lacks 10 minutes", thus ორს აკლია ათი. The verb to lack:აკლია takes the dative case for its subject, hence the dropping that does not occur with the possessive used for 1-29.

Being "at" a time also differs between 0-30 and 31-59.

add +ზე to the minutes, at 1:30:ორის ნახევალზე
add რამ after the hour, at 1:50:ორს რამ აკლია ათი


Useful Phrases

მე მქვია... – I am called...
ქართული იცი? – Do you know Georgian?
ცოტა ვიცი – I know a little
გაიმეორეთ – Please say again
ვერ გავიგე – I don't understand it
როგორ არის ქართულად "x"? – What is X in Georgian?
"x" ქართულად არის "y" – X in Georgian is Y
მე ვსწავლობ ქართულ ენას – I am learning Georgian


ინებეთ - "here you are"
თუ შეიძლება - "if I/we may", used at the end of a sentence to politely order something. When placed at the beginning of a sentence, drop "თუ"
გეტეყვა - polite request form, a little archaic
მოგვთან - bring to us
არაფრის – you're welcome
რას შემოგვთავაზები?

(add food items)

Sentence Structures

Simultaneous Action (როცა)

To indicate simultaneous action, ex. "I was at class, when Wes was on vacation", one uses როცა to stand in for the when/while part of the English sentence. Both clauses of the sentence should be in the same tense.

  1. მე წავალ საქართველოში, როცა ვისშავლი ქართულს.
    I will go to Georgia, while I am learning Georgian.

Conditional Sentences (თუ)

For sentences expressing, "X will happen, if Y", one uses თუ:if. For example, მოვდივარ, თუ გინდა:I'm coming, if you want.



le flaneur's georgian dictionary