Last updated 2018-03-25 16:47:20
Words like これ or それ become この or その when modifying a noun, ex. この
Xちら are "X way", such as
There is no conjugation of verbs in the present tense. Negation of ます verbs is done with ません, ex. 話しません. When negating a noun or adjective ("It is not a book"), then じゃありません is used.
The form of verbs sometimes give an indication of what type of action is being performed. For example, verbs with せ indicate that subject is having someone do something, ex.
見せる:to show (you are making someone see). Verbs with え are the potential form, such as
見える:to be visible.
Do you speak English?
No, that's not right.
Contrast with そうです。:That's right.
There are students in the store.
います, rather than あります, is used with animate nouns
- ます → でした
Suzuki-san was a student.
To find the
|ない||書||か||ない||(do not write)|
|ます||書||き||ます||(to write, pol.)|
|辞書||書||く||∅||(to write, neut.)|
Notice how the vowels go from a→i→u.
Change ます into る. Thus, たべます→食べる.
- 来る:to come
- する:to be
- question particle
かんこうですか？:are you going sightseeing?
- existential particle, used with あります to indicate what exists. DBJG describes these as the objects of stative transitive verbs (ex. to have) and transitive adjectives.DBJG, 120 7e
- a subject marker, for subject which are not the topic. In particular, for WH-words, such as 何, since they can never be topics.DBJG, 119
- locative particle
- locative particleDBJG, 299, used with time phrases, ex.
月曜日に:on Mondayand あります。
- locative particle, このちずの:on this map
- number of things
- object particle, follows the object of the clause
- topic particle, pronounced "wa" rather than "ha"
- connector between two nouns (like "and"), comitative particle (i.e. "with X")
- attached to the end of sentences to inform the listener of something or assure them of somethingDBJG, 543
There is a bookstore
が follows what exists, in this case a 本屋.
Is there a bookstore near here?
Where is the Tokyo Hotel on this map?
の functions both as the possessive and as the locative particle in this example
I watch movies at home.
I, with my friend, went to the store.
Location prepositions (such as 'in front of') occur after the noun. So I guess they're actually postpositions. For example,
店の前:in front of the store.
Where are you from?
- where (pol., inf.)
- how much
- either なに if standalone or なん if attached to something (ex, 何時？:what time?)
- not really a question word, per se, but used to ask the equivalent of "do you have...?" questions
Where is the toilet?
How much is that pen?
Do you have maps?
- all i-adjectives end in an explicit い, such as 高い, but all adjectives ending in い are i-adjectives, such as 嫌い. These exceptions are few. They can be used in front of a noun without change, ex.
高いシャツ:an expensive t-shirt.
- these adjectives require a な between the adjective and the noun, ex.
綺麗な人:a pretty person.
- indicates the preceding kanji should be repeated, ex. 日々:daily. More formally called
time in the day:
It is now one o'clock
Measure words and quantity appear after the noun, the opposite of Chinese. That is, (5円絵葉書)(3)(枚), rather than (3)(张)(5元明信片).
- After typing, double-tapping space will bring up more options to select
^1after selecting a character will bring up similar characters. I have yet to find a use for this.
^2after selecting characters will bring up characters comprised of those characters. Ex. 気分 +
- きごう + double-tap space will bring up a list of symbols, like this thing 〆.
le flaneur's japanese dictionary