learn kazakh through reading: basics 1
This is Kazakh Through Reading, inspired by Teach Yourself Russian Through Reading by Frank Higgenbottom. It assumes you can a) read Cyrillic and b) have the following books:
- Казахский Язык by К. Шахатова, from Живой Язык
- Kazakh: A Comprehensive Grammar by Raihan Muhamedova, from Rutledge
- Сөзык/Dictionary from Аруна (but any dictionary should work, even Google translate)
At least for now. Long term the idea is to make these into exercises, rather than you reading the notes I take as I write this out for the first time :)
If a consonant is capitalized in a surface form section, it follows the rules in the section. If a vowel is capitalized, it is determined based on vowel harmony (TODO).
Урок 2, Диалог 1
K: Кешіріңіз, сіз қазақша сөйлейсіз бе?
R: Извините, Вы говорите по-казахски?
- сіз/+сіз => Вы?
K: Иә, аздал сөйлеймін
R: Да, немного
- сөйлей_ = говорить
K: Не ішесіз?
R: Что будете пить?
- If +сіз is the 2p.pol. indicator, іше_ must be пить. This seems to indicate that the future/conditional (будете) is not used in this type of question in KZ.
- Does не = бе as a type of question particle?
R: Кофе, пожалуйсте.
K: Қантпен әлде сүтпен?
R: С молоком и сахаром?
- +пен is the unifying feature between қантпен and сүтпен, and there is no individual word that appears to correspond to RU с, which seems to indicate that +пен is equal to с, or "with"/INST.
K: Рахмет, тек сүтпен.
R: Только с молоком, спасибо.
- This section shows that the ordering of milk and sugar in the previous section is reversed! Сүтпен means "with milk", not "with sugar", as implied by the Russian gloss.
How'd we do?
- +сіз is the pronomial agreement suffix for 2nd person polite cases. §2.1
- +пен is the INST suffix. Its surface form is +Мен. §2.5.7
- Не is "what" in NOM form, p.20
- Бе is a question particle, §1.3.2. Its surface form is МА.