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russian

Nouns

Pronouns

Nominative

sg. pl.
Я Мы
Ты Вы
Он, она, оно Они

Accusative

sg. pl.
Меня Нас
Тебя Вас
Его, Её Их

Possessive

sg. pl.
Мой, моя, моё Наш, наша, наше
Твой, твоя, твоё Ваш, ваша, ваше
Его, её Их

Cases

Accusative

Non-animate, masculine nouns do not normally change in the accusative. Feminine nouns ending in -а change to -у, -я to -ю.

Phrases like "I want (lit. will be)" take the ACC. Ex. Я буду рыбу (fish.NOM is рыба).

Prepositional

-е, usually following prepositions в and на.
Vowel is dropped before adding the е.
Words ending in -ия/ие become -ии.

Его is pronounced like Ево.

Genitive

Masculine, add -а. Replace -ь/й with я, ex. Игорь > Игоря.
Feminine, -а becomes -ы., -г/к/х/я becomes и.

Plural

In the nominative case, most masculine nouns take the ending -ы in the plural form. If a masculine noun ends in -ец the vowel e is dropped before the plural ending is added. If the stem if г/к/х, then the plural is -и. Some masculine plural nouns end in -а. In these cases, the а is always stressed (ex. дома̀).Babbel

Adjectives

Adjective endings in Russian vary according to gender and case of the noun that follows. Masculine adjectives have three endings in the nominative case: -ый , -ий and -ой. Feminine adjective have two endings in the nominative case: -ая and -яя. Neuter adjectives in the nominative, like feminine adjectives, also have two endings: -ое and -ее.Babbel

Masculine: end in й
Feminine: end in я
Neuter: end in е

Verbs

Present Tense

Class 1 (-ть)

sg. pl.
работаю работаем
работаешь работаете
работает работают

Class 2 (-ить, -еть)

sg. pl.
говорю говорим
говоришь говорите
говорит говорят

Past Tense

The past tense can indicate a variety of different moods. For example "Я жил..." could mean "I lived...", "I was living...", etc.

Past tense is formed by removing ть from the infinitive and adding, in the singular, л, ла, ло, based on the subject of the verb and ли when the subject is plural (regardless of gender).

Irregular

любть has an extra л in the 1sg людлю, otherwise it is class 2.

быть (to be)

Regular past tense (был etc.).

PRT
sg. pl.
есмь есмы
еси есте
есть суть
FUT
sg. pl.
буду будем
бу̀дешь будете
будѐт будут

жить (to live)

PRT
sg. pl.
живу живём
живёшь живёте
живут живут

Infinitive

Two main types of verbs, those that end in -ть and those which end in -а/ять.

Reflexives

Ends in -ся ("a contraction of себя"Higgenbottam, pg. 22). To conjugate a reflexive verb, conjugate normally and add ся or сь (if last letter is a vowel). The ending is pronounced short, like "sa".

Ex. я остановлю (I stopped) > я остановлюсь (I stopped myself).

Prepositions

PREP + 3rd person => +н, ex. у + её = у неё.

в becomes во when followed by a work that begins with в or ф and has multiple initial consonants, ex. во вторник (on Tuesdays).

Possession

У GEN есть NOM

Question Words

"The basic rule is that if a noun follows, use какой, if no noun follows, use что"Babbel

чей/чья - whose (m/f)
{whose} это {noun}, where {whose} matches the gender of {noun}.
где vs. куда
где = "where", куда = "to where" (куда он едет?, "(to) Where is he going?")
какой/ая/ое - which/what
какой это чвет? - what color is that?

когда - when

Errata

Stress

It is all random.

о is pronounced о in stressed syllables, pronounced as а in unstressed.

ё is always stressed.

Days of the Week

On {day of the week}
Proceeded by в

Numbers

Teens are formed by {number} + надцать. More or less, drop the ь. Ex четырнадцать.

Time

When you specify a number of hours, the number is placed before the noun час: один час
When час follows the numbers 2, 3 or 4, it takes the ending -а: два, три, четыре часа (pronounced like chsa)
With the numbers 5 to 20, час takes the ending -ов: часов (pronounced like chsov)
For two-digit numbers from 21 onwards, the form of час changes according to the value of the second digit: двадцать один час, двадцать два часа, двадцать пять часов and so on.Babbel

Time is given with the preposition в.

The word for year changes depending on the number of years:
1: год
2-4: года
5-20 & multiples of ten: лет
double digits, ex. 21: the value of the second digit, ex. 21 is год.
* много (many): лет

Sentences

Put a comma after знать. Ex. Ты знаешь, где...?

Bibliography