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tagalog

Nouns

ANG Pronouns

ANG pronouns serve as the topic of a sentence.

sg pl
ako kami
ka/ikaw kayo
siya/iyon

kayo can also be used as the 2nd-person singular polite pronoun as well. ikaw differs from ka in that it can be used at the beginning of a sentence or by itself. iyon is 3sg inanimate (it) and siya is 3sg animate.

NG Pronouns

NG pronouns serve as anything but topic of a sentence, ex. possessive pronoun.

sg pl
ko
mo

Verbs

(See Paraluman p72 and p73)

Present Tense

UM verbs

Conjugation is performed in two steps:

  1. Double the first CV of the root
  2. Add any appropriate prefix

For example, with root galak:to please.

  1. ga + galak
  2. ikina + gagalak
  3. ikinagagalak:pleases (In the sense of "I am pleased to meet you.")

Future Tense

Mango refers to this as the "contemplated" form and it is used to indicate future action.

MAG verbs

  1. Repeat CV of the root
  2. Add mag-

For example with root mag-ingat:to be careful.

  1. i + ingat
  2. mag- + iingat
  3. mag-iingat:be careful (In the sense of "take care!" as a goodbye)

(Use a hyphen if the root begins with a vowel)

Particles

ang
topic marker
ba
quetion particle. Follows pronouns with one syllable. Ex. Nagsaslita ka ba ng Tagalog?:Can you speak Tagalog?
na
"Indicates an action has happened or is happening and its occurance was expected."Mango Languages One of two particles that occur after the first ful word in a sentence. Ex. kamusta na po kayo?:How have you been, ma'am?. If there is a single syllable pronoun, then it comes at the end: kamusta ka na?:How have you been?
naman
adds politeness or certainty to a response. Ex. Mabuti naman ako:I am fine.
si/sina
si is the topic marker for personal names. sina is for multiple people. Ex. kamusta si Juan?:How is Juan?

Adjectives

Add ng after an adjective that ends in a vowel, when it precedes a noun. Ex. magandang umaga:good morning, but literally "beautiful morning". Maganda is beautiful.

Prefixes

ikina
indicates why the subject pefroms an action, ikinagagalak kong makilala ka - by meeting/knowing you, I am pleased.
taga
a noun-forming prefix that denotes the origin of something, ex. taga-saan ka?:where are you from?, saan:where.

Postfixes

ng
links between two verbs, ex. pwedeng magtanong:can (I) ask?, where pwede is the standalone form. It also links two adjectives.

Politeness

Politeness is marked with po at the end of a sentence or phrase, ex. magandang umaga po:good morning (sir/ma'am).

nga
comes after na in a sentence, converts commands into polite requests. Ex. Ano nga ulit ang pangalan mo?:What is your name again?

Sentence Structure

The basic structure of a Tagalog sentence is PREDICATE TOPIC, ex. Kamusta ka?. Kamusta is the predicate (how are) and ka (you) is the topic.

ay
switches from Predicate + Topic to Topic + Predicate, ex. Ang pangalan ko ay...:My name is...

Negation

hindi negates sentences. Additionally, the pronoun comes before the verb. Ex. Hindi ako nagasaslita:I do not speak.