ANG pronouns serve as the topic of a sentence.
kayo can also be used as the 2nd-person singular polite pronoun as well. ikaw differs from ka in that it can be used at the beginning of a sentence or by itself. iyon is 3sg inanimate (it) and siya is 3sg animate.
NG pronouns serve as anything but topic of a sentence, ex. possessive pronoun.
(See Paraluman p72 and p73)
Conjugation is performed in two steps:
- Double the first CV of the root
- Add any appropriate prefix
For example, with root
- ga + galak
- ikina + gagalak
ikinagagalak:pleases(In the sense of "I am pleased to meet you.")
Mango refers to this as the "contemplated" form and it is used to indicate future action.
- Repeat CV of the root
- Add mag-
For example with root
mag-ingat:to be careful.
- i + ingat
- mag- + iingat
mag-iingat:be careful(In the sense of "take care!" as a goodbye)
(Use a hyphen if the root begins with a vowel)
- topic marker
- quetion particle. Follows pronouns with one syllable. Ex. Nagsaslita ka ba ng Tagalog?:Can you speak Tagalog?
- "Indicates an action has happened or is happening and its occurance was expected."Mango Languages One of two particles that occur after the first ful word in a sentence. Ex. kamusta na po kayo?:How have you been, ma'am?. If there is a single syllable pronoun, then it comes at the end: kamusta ka na?:How have you been?
- adds politeness or certainty to a response. Ex. Mabuti naman ako:I am fine.
- si is the topic marker for personal names. sina is for multiple people. Ex. kamusta si Juan?:How is Juan?
ng after an adjective that ends in a vowel, when it precedes a noun. Ex. magandang umaga:good morning, but literally "beautiful morning". Maganda is beautiful.
- indicates why the subject pefroms an action, ikinagagalak kong makilala ka - by meeting/knowing you, I am pleased.
- a noun-forming prefix that denotes the origin of something, ex. taga-saan ka?:where are you from?,
- links between two verbs, ex.
pwedeng magtanong:can (I) ask?, where pwede is the standalone form. It also links two adjectives.
Politeness is marked with
po at the end of a sentence or phrase, ex. magandang umaga po:good morning (sir/ma'am).
- comes after
nain a sentence, converts commands into polite requests. Ex. Ano nga ulit ang pangalan mo?:What is your name again?
The basic structure of a Tagalog sentence is
PREDICATE TOPIC, ex. Kamusta ka?. Kamusta is the predicate (how are) and ka (you) is the topic.
- switches from Predicate + Topic to Topic + Predicate, ex. Ang pangalan ko ay...:My name is...
hindi negates sentences. Additionally, the pronoun comes before the verb. Ex. Hindi ako nagasaslita:I do not speak.