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azeri

Last updated 2019-06-30 16:36:19

Vowel Harmony

front vowels i ü e ö ə
back vowels u ı o a

based on final vowel in a word

a vs. ə based on front/back
i vs ı vs u vs ü based on front/back, rounded/unrounded
k (front) vs q (back)

thus qələm:pen -> qələmlər:pens or kitab:book -> kitablar:books.

Azeri exhibits both consonant assimilation and vowel harmony. Meaning that some consonants in suffixes will change quality depending on the last letter of the root word. Similarly, some vowels will change based on quality of vowels in the root (such as ə to a). This is illustrated below by representing the letters that experience consonant assimilation or vowel harmony as capitals. For example, +?? will different for both the consonant and vowel depending on what it is attached to.

Nouns

Plurals are formed with the suffix -lər.

Pronouns

Personal

Number NOM POSS
1s. mən mənim
2s. sən sənim
3s. o onun
1p. biz bizim
2p. siz sizin
3p. onlar onlar

POSS suffix

-ım

Demonstrative

  near far
sg bu bunlar
pl o onlar

Suffixes

Azeri is an exclusively suffixing language.

-dA
locative

Verbs

imek (to be)

The only irregular verb in Azeri. Exists only as a suffix and is attached to the final word of a sentence. For example, Mən professoram ⧸ I am a professor.

As with all suffixes in Azeri, if a suffix is attached to a word ending in a vowel, a "buffer consonant"EoA p21 y is added. Thus, sürücü:driverMən sürücüyəm:I am a driver.

The 'to be' suffix is not stressed.

  sg pl
1 -Am -IQ
2 -sAn -sInIz
3 -dIr -dIr(lAr)

3rd Person PluralEoA p24

The 3pl ending changes based on the subject in question: