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georgian

Last updated 2019-06-19 19:33:32

Nouns

Pronouns

Personal

Number NOM POSS DAT
1s. მე ჩემი მე
2s. შენ შენი შენ
3s. ის (ი)მისი (ი)მას
1p. ჩვენ ჩვენი ჩვენ
2p. თქვენ თქვენი თქვენ
3p. ისინი (ი)მითი (ი)მათ

Demonstrative

  near far
sg ეს ის
pl ესინი ისინი

In non-NOM situations, ეს becomes ამ and ის becomes იმ. For example, ეს ქალი → ამ ქალს ⧸ this woman (NOM) → this (DAT) woman.

Relative

რაც
that (which). Most often refers to an indefinite antecedant. For example, რაც ვიცი, გეტყვი ⧸ That which I know, I will tell youVogt §1.67 or მე იქ 6 წელია რაც ვმუშაობ ⧸ It has been 6 years that I have been working here.

Prefixes

გადა
over, motion across
სა
creates nouns out of other nouns, most often with an additiona -ე or -ო suffix. Generally has the meaning of "the place for the thing" For example, ფული:moneyსაფულე:wallet or კაცი:manსაკაცე:stretcher.Vogt §3.29

Suffixes

In many cases, the final in the NOM are removed, ex. გაკვეთილი:lessonგაკვეთილები:lessons.

functions as the 3sg copula (and colloquially, as 3pl copula), meaning that "is" in a simple sentence like "She is a girl", "is" is attached to the noun. Using this example, rather than ის არის გოგო (არის:is.3sg.PRS), instead one can say ის გოგოა. When attached to an adjective, it is equivalent to "it is", ex. კარგია:it is good. Sometimes, but I'm not totally clear on when, one will see two აs at the end of a word. It is safe to assume that this is the 3sg copula.
"the euphonic ა", it is attached to some words, such as არ:negative marker, in front of one syllable words. For example, არა ვარ ⧸ I am not.
ად (ADV)
adverbializer. Drop the final if exists and add ად, otherwise, keep the final vowel and add . This form is used for languages as well, ქართულად:in Georgian. For example, კარგი:goodკარგად:well.
ები
plural. If the word ends in ა or ი, the final vowel is dropped, otherwise it is preserved. For example, გაკვეთილი:lessonგაკვეთილები:lessons and სამუშაო:workplaceსამუშაოები:workplaces
თან
near to, next to, together with (when used with ერთად:together).Vogt §1.98 When used with a possessive pronoun, such as ჩემი:mine, it indicates towards the location one is at. For example, სახლი ძალიან ცივია! მე მძინავს ჩემ ძაღლთან ერთად. ⧸ The house is cold! I am sleeping (together) with my dog. or ჩემთან მოდის. ⧸ (S/he) is coming to me (e.g. my house).
თვის
for, around/about. follows case marking. This is mutually exclusive with object markings on verbs (ex. -უ-). Can be used with POSS pronouns. For example, ჩემთვის:for me.
დან (INST)
from. For example, გერმანია:Germanyგერმანიიდან:from Germany. Note the double იი from the removal of the final -ა and the -ი from the INST case.
მდე (ADV)
up to, till, until. The დ from ADV is dropped. For example, 8 საათიდან 5 საათამდე ⧸ From 8 until 5.
ზე
on, about. Traditionally regarded as a DAT suffix, in modern Georgian, it is unmarked.Kurtsikidze 84 is dropped before ზე. For example,მაგიდაზე:on the table and პირველი საათზე:at 1 o'clock.
ში
to, in, into. Traditionally regarded as a DAT suffix, in modern Georgian, it is unmarked.Kurtsikidze 84 is dropped before ში. For example, მანქანა:carმანქანაში:in a/the car and ოფისი:officeოფისში:to/in the office.
სკენ
towards.
too, also. Can only be attached to pronouns. It is also makes a question word into a relative pronoun. For example, მეც:me too.Vogt §2.199
ჯერ
frequency, number of times.
წინ
in front, ago.
უკან
behind.
შუა (DAT)
between.
მოყვარული
fan of, ex. კინომოყვარული:film fan
  1. ორი დღის დროში
    in two days
  2. ფიგურაზე ვსაუბრობთ.
    We're talking about the statue.

Grammatical Cases

NOM
the nominative case, it is unmarked (i.e the default dictionary case)
GEN (ი)ს
the genitive case, used with certain prepositions or grammar structures. Nouns ending in ა or ე lose the ending vowel and add ის. All other endings add just ს. Some nouns are exceptions, such as კაფე:café, which is კაფეს in GEN. One can generally distinguish between GEN and DAT because GEN will always have a vowel before the .
DAT, ACC, POSS
the dative/accusative/possesive case, usually used to indicate the object of a transitive verb.
ERG მ(ა)
the ergative case, this is used with some verbs.
INS
the instrumental case, used to mark a noun that is used to do a verb (ex. I rode the bus-, because the bus is the "instrument" used to ride) or by what something is done (გეგმით:according to the plan).
ADV (ა)დ
the adverbial case, often fixed phrases, it is the equivalent of "as an X". For example, "As a student-, I dislike homework".
VOC (ვ)
the vocative case, it's uncommon now, used to call to a person, or poetically, to a noun ("oh spring-!). The final -ვ is optional. Words like ბატონო:sir or ქალბატონო:ma'am function as vocative forms. Their nominatives replace the final ო with ი.

Verbs

Verbs, when listed, are listed with the "verbal noun" form, also referred to as the masdar. This is a common dictionary form, but some other dictionaries/phrasebooks may list other forms.

Regular Verbs

Personal pronouns can be dropped in Georgian, as pronomial indicators person are attached directly to the verb. Verbs take one of two forms of indicating person, either ვ-series or მ-series.

The object of the sentence can also be indicated in the verb construction too. This quite complicated and the only example I know right now is -უ-:2nd person object, in მე უეს ვურეკა:I am calling Wes.

Present Tense - ვ-series

  sg pl
1 ვ+stem ვ+stem+თ
2 stem stem+თ
3 stem+ს stem+ენ

+ენ is +ან after stems that end in . An example of the verb to do:კეთები, stem: აკეთებ.

  sg pl
1 აკეთებ აკეთებ
2 აკეთებ აკეთებ
3 აკეთებ აკეთებენ

Present Tense - მ-series

  sg pl
1 მ+stem გვ+stem
2 გ+stem გ+stem+თ
3 stem stem+თ

Note that in both 2pl and 3pl, the final -ს is dropped. An example of the verb სურვილი:to want; to wish, stem: სურს.

  sg pl
1 სურს გვსურს
2 სურს სურ
3 სურს სურ

Almost invariably, these verbs take a dative subject, thus მას სურს and მათ სურთ.

Irregular Verbs

ყოფმა - to be
Present Indicative
  sg pl
1 ვარ ვართ
2 ხარ ხართ
3 არის არიან
Past Tense
  sg pl
1 ვიყვი ვიყვით
2 იყივი იყივით
3 იყო იყვნენ
Future Tense
  sg pl
1 ვიქნები ვიქნებით
2 იქნები იქნებით
3 იქნების იქნებიას
ქონა - to have (inanimate object)

DAT subject.

Note: მანქანა:cars are considered animate.

Present Indicative
  sg pl
1 მაქვს გვაქვს
2 გაქვს გაქვთ
3 აქვს აქვთ
ყოლა - to have (animate object)

DAT subject.

Note: მანქანა:cars are considered animate.

Present Indicative
  sg pl
1 მყავს გვყავს
2 გყავს გყათ
3 ჰყავს ჰყავთ
Verbs of going

Verbs of "going" are comprised of a directional prefix, the verb to be, and დი.

Directional prefixes include:

An example of the conjugation would be, მივდივარ:I go

მივდივარ {
მო დი ვარ
directional prefix 1sg marker "go" to be.1sg
  sg pl
1 მივდივარ მივდივართ
2 მიდიხარ მიდიხართ
3 მიდის მიდიან

The location target of the verb (ex. to the office, from the moon) are marked with +ში for going towards a place and +დან when coming from a place.

  1. საიდან მოდიხარ?
    Where are you coming from?
    საიდან:whence can be thought of as sort of like სად:where + დან:from
  2. მოვდივარ ოფისში.
    I am going to the office.
Verbs of Situation, Condition, or Feeling

This is a broad category of verbs that encompasses verbs such as rains, sits, and is cold. Kurtsikidze describes these types of verbs as "medio-active" and "medio-passive", indicating that they are not quite active and not quite passive. For example, "it rains" is not quite active because there isn't really an actor raining (though one could argue it is the sky).

Verbs expressing weather, such as წვიმს:it rains can also be expressed by {adj} + არის/მოდის. That is, rather that it rains, it would be it is raining.Kurtisikidze, 171

Negation

Verbs can be negated in Georgian in two ways, with არ and ვერ. ვერ implies an inability to complete the action, whereas არ is simply that the action didn't occur. Compare below:

Participles

Future Participles

Future participles are often created with სა-{word}-ელი and indicate an action to be done. For example, სწავლება:learningსასწავლი:to be learned

Expressing Purpose

Purpose can be expressed with the a future participle, most commonly with the future participle in the adverbial case. The future participle is formed by prefixing the root with სა- and the adverbial case is formed with -ად. Using მოგზიურობა:to travel, we get სამოგზიუროდ:for the purpose of traveling. -დ is used here because the root ends in a vowel.

In many cases, and expecially when in the adverbial case, the word can be thought of like the English infinitive.Harris, 155

Occasionally, სა- may occur after the first syllable, such as დალევი:to drinkდასალევად. დასალევად implies drinking alcohol (much as saying "We're going drinking" in English implies the same).

Question Words

ვინ
who
რა
what. When combined with adjective with -ა, it means "how X!" as in "how cute!".Kiziria, 49 რა is often suffixed, such as რაში:in what.
რა ღირს
how much
როგორ
how
როდის
when
რიტომ
why
სად
where, derivative საიდან:whence, from where. Both derive from the same სა- interogative pronomial stem. See Klimov 161-162.
სადაური
from where, often when asking from country of origin
რამდენ
how many
რამდენჯარ
how many times (see +ჯარ in the suffixes)
რა ღირს
how much
რომელი
which
  1. როგორა ხარ?
    How are you?
  2. ვინ არის ეს?
    Who is this?
  3. რა საინტერესოა!
    How interesting!
  4. რომელი საათია?
    What time is it?
    note the 3sg suffix
  5. რომელ საათზე?
    At what time?
  6. რაში ექსპერტი?
    In what are you an expert?
    i.e. what are you good at?

Postpositions

წინ GEN
before, in front of.
მერე
after.
განმავლობაში
during, in the course of.
შორის
among, between.
  1. რა განსხვავებაა X-ის და Y-ის შორის?
    What is the difference between X and Y?

Numbers

See also the Wikipedia page. Note that if a quantity is used with a noun, the noun does not decline for the plural. That is ორი კიცი:two men, not ორი კიცები.

Cardinal Numbers

0 — ნული
1 — ერთი
2 — ორი
3 — სამი
4 — ოთხი
5 — ხუთი
6 — ექვსი
7 — შვიდი
8 — რვა
9 — ცხრა
10 — ათი
20 — ოცი

Teens are formed by + 1-9 - + მეტი, ex. 11 → + ერთ + მეტითერთმეტი. Some initial consonants merge with the initial თ, such as + .

11 — თერთმეტი
12 — თორმეტი
13 — ცამეტი
14 — თოთხმეტი
15 — თხუთმეტი
16 — თექვსმეტი
17 — ჩვიდმეტი
18 — თვრამეტი
19 — ცხრამეტი

Anything over 20 is base 20, using 2/3/4 x 20 as the basis. Thus, base - + და + 1-19.

20 — ოცი
21 — ოცდაერთი
40 — ორმოცი
47 — ორმოცდაშვიდი
60 — სამოცი
80 — ოთხმოცი

Cardinal numbers can be emphasized with the suffix -ვე to mean "all X", that is ორივე:all two (of them).Vogt §1.77

Ordinal Numbers

1st - პირველი

2-19: მე + # - + . Ex. 13th:მეცამეტე.

20+: base + ordinal version of 1-19 (1 reverts back to ერთი for these numbers). Ex. 21st:ოცდამეერთე.

Fractions

Fractions are formed by adding -დი to ordinal numbers. Ex. 1/4th:მეოთხედი. 1/2 is more commonly ნახევარი.

Time

Time Vocabulary

The Georgian week starts on Monday.

Seasons are:

Months are:

Dates are given in the form "day-month-year". Thus, 25 აპრილი ორი ათას ცხრამეტი:25 April 2019. Note the dropped -ი in ათასი. A response to "what date is it?" will end in the GEN (thus ..,ცხრამეტის ).

Time Expressions

General time expressions (in the morning, in the evening, on Monday, etc.) are marked with the DAT or INST, thus morning:დილაin the morning:დილას. For example, დილას არის მზე. ⧸ It is sunny in the morning. When used to describe relative time (ex. AM or PM), the expression is in GEN. For example, დილის ცხრა საათია ⧸ It is 9am.

When discussing a specific day, such as March 3rd, the expression is in DAT. For example, სამ მარტს ⧸ March, 3rd. Notice the final -ი is dropped in სამი, as it is an -ი adjective in the dative case. See also minutes 31-59 described below.

Expressions such as "2 days ago" or "in 3 years" are expressed with წინ:prior and შემდეგ:next, respectively. The time expression is in GEN. For example, საუსტად ორი წლის წინ ⧸ Exactly two years ago or ერთი თვეს შემდეგ ⧸ In one month.Taranov, 32

Full hours are simply with the cardinal number plus is # hours:საათია. The exception is 1 o'clock is "1st hour", პირველი საათია. Thus, 2 o'clock:ორი საათია. In spoken Georgian, the 12-hour clock is used, whereas written Georgian uses a 24-hour clock.

Minutes within hours can be expressed literally as "1 hour + 15 minutes", but that sounds unnatural. Instead, minutes should be given relative to the hour that owns them – in Georgia, the "owning" hour is the hour that has yet to pass on the clock. So a time like 1:35, all of those 35 minutes below to 2, since 2 has not yet been hit on the clock.

This ownership is expressed in two different ways, depending on if it's before or after the 30 minute mark.

1-29
hour's (GEN +ს) + #, so 1:24 would be "2's 24 minutes", thus ორის ოცდაოთხი
30
hour's (GEN +ს) + half:ნახევარი, ex. 1:30 = 2's half = ორის ნახევარი
31-59
hour (DAT -ი +ს) + lacks + #, so 1:50 would be "2 lacks 10 minutes", thus ორს აკლია ათი. The 3rd person form lacks:აკლია takes the dative case for its subject, hence the dropping that does not occur with the possessive used for 1-29.

Being "at" a time also differs between 0-30 and 31-59.

0
drop -ი in the hour and add +ზე to the hour, at 3:00:სამ საათზე
1-30
add +ზე to the minutes, at 1:30:ორის ნახევარზე
31-59
add რომ after the hour, at 1:50:ორს რომ აკლია ათი

Situations

Useful Phrases

მე მქვია... – I am called...
ქართული იცი? – Do you know Georgian?
ცოტა ვიცი – I know a little
გაიმეორეთ – Please say again
ვერ გავიგე – I don't understand it
როგორ არის ქართულად "x"? – What is X in Georgian?
"x" ქართულად არის "y" – X in Georgian is Y
მე ვსწავლობ ქართულ ენას – I am learning Georgian

Restaurants

ინებეთ - "here you are"
თუ შეიძლება - "if I/we may", used at the end of a sentence to politely order something. When placed at the beginning of a sentence, drop "თუ"
გეტეყვა - polite request form, a little archaic
მოგვთან - bring to us
არაფრის – you're welcome
რას შემოგვთავაზები?

(add food items)

Sentence Structures

Simultaneous Action (როცა or თან...თან)

To indicate simultaneous action, ex. "I was at class, when Wes was on vacation", one uses როცა to stand in for the when/while part of the English sentence. Both clauses of the sentence should be in the same tense.

Alternatively, the two actions can both be preceded by თან.

  1. მე წავალ საქართველოში, როცა ვისშავლი ქართულს.
    I will go to Georgia, while I am learning Georgian.
  2. თან მღერის თან ცეკვავს.
    She is dancing and singing (at the same time).

Conditional Sentences (თუ)

For sentences expressing, "X will happen, if Y", one uses თუ:if. For example, მოვდივარ, თუ გინდა:I'm coming, if you want.

Expressing Desire (მინდა)

When expressing what one wants to do, both verbs – to want and the desired action – are conjugated. Thus, ...იმიტომ, რომ მინდა ვჯამო... ⧸ ...because I wanted to eat....

Options (თუ/ან, არც...არც)

There are two words for or in Georgian: თუ and ან. They function in a similar manner to 还是 and 或者 in Chinese, that is თუ is used in questions and ან is used in statements.

The negative version, neither...nor, is expressed with არ(ც)...არც.

  1. მიდიხარ ოფისში თუ ბიბლიოთეკში?
    Are you going to the office or to the library?
  2. მას ჰყავს ერთი ან ორი და, მაგრამ მე ზუსტად არ ვიცი.
    He has one or two sisters, but I don't know exactly.

Reported Speech (-ო)

Reported speech is always given in the tense/mode as if the person who is being quoted is actually saying the phrase. The -ო marker is attached to the verb, often at the end of the sentence.

  1. გუშინ დამირეკა და მთხოვა თუ შეგიძლია ბაზარში გამიყვანეო.
    Yesterday she called and asked "if it is possible for you to take me to the bazaar?"
    where me refers to the individual doing the asking.

Sometimes this, sometimes that (ხან..., ხან...)

When two things happen, but not necessarily at the same time (sometimes I ride my bike, sometimes I take the bus), use ხან before each "thing" that is being done.

Adjectives

Adjectives can be divided between consonant-final and vowel-final adjectives. Vowel-final is any adjective ending in ა, ე, უ, ო. Consonant-final is anything else (including -ი, such as დიდი:big). When paired with a noun, vowel-final adjectives do not decline, whereas consonant-final will decline in ERG and VOC cases, and will drop -ი in DAT and ADV.Kurtsikidze 53 See, for example, examples of "at a time", where the final ი in the time is dropped.

National Adjectives

Comparison

More X is expressed with უფრო and most X is expressed with ყველაზე. For example, ცხელი → უფრო ცხელი → ყველაზე ცხელი ⧸ warm → warmer → warmest. Than, in the sense of "heavier than Bob", is ვიდრე. ის უფრო მძიმე, ვიდრე გიორგი ⧸ He is heavier than Giorgi.

Adjective Formation

უ...ო
"..."-less. For example, ღრუბელიუღრუბლო ⧸ cloud → cloudless.

Miscellaneous

Dialect Note

In a Gori accent, many individuals drop the final , in არის:is, as well as adding to words such as სად:where.

Bibliography

Dictionary

le flaneur's georgian dictionary