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georgian

Last updated 2019-07-30 21:51:33

Nouns

Pronouns

Personal

Number NOM POSS DAT
1s. მე ჩემი მე
2s. შენ შენი შენ
3s. ის (ი)მისი (ი)მას
1p. ჩვენ ჩვენი ჩვენ
2p. თქვენ თქვენი თქვენ
3p. ისინი (ი)მითი (ი)მათ

Demonstrative

  near far
sg ეს ის
pl ესინი ისინი

ეგ is used when the object in question is in possession by the person being spoken to. Ex. ეგ წიგნი:that book implies the book is owned by the person being spoken to.

In non-NOM situations, ეს becomes ამ and ის becomes იმ. For example, ეს ქალი → ამ ქალს ⧸ this woman (NOM) → this (DAT) woman.

Interrogative and Relative

Interrogative Relative English
რა რაც what/whatever
როდის როდისაც, როცა when/whenever
სად სადაც where/wherever
როგორ როგორც how/however
ვინ ვინც who/whoever
რამდენი რამდენიც how many/how many ever

More formally, relative pronouns, in particular რაც, most often refer to an indefinite antecedant. For example, რაც ვიცი, გეტყვი ⧸ That which I know, I will tell youVogt §1.67 or მე იქ 6 წელია რაც ვმუშაობ ⧸ It has been 6 years that I have been working here. In these cases, it often works better to translate რაც as "that (which)".

When suffixed with -მე, the interrogative pronouns function as the prefix some- in English. Thus, ვინმე:someone, სადმე:somewhere, etc.

  1. ა: რა აკიღოთ? ბ: რაც შენ გინდა.
    A: What shall we have? B: Whatever you like.
  2. როგორც შენ დარეკე, (მე ...)
    When you called, (I ...)
  3. რგორც გინდა
    As you wish
  4. სადმე წავალთ?
    Are we going somewhere?

Prefixes

გადა
over, motion across

Suffixes

In many cases, the final in the NOM are removed, ex. გაკვეთილი:lessonგაკვეთილები:lessons.

functions as the 3sg copula (and colloquially, as 3pl copula), meaning that "is" in a simple sentence like "She is a girl", "is" is attached to the noun. Using this example, rather than ის არის გოგო (არის:is.3sg.PRS), instead one can say ის გოგოა. When attached to an adjective, it is equivalent to "it is", ex. კარგია:it is good. Sometimes, but I'm not totally clear on when, one will see two აs at the end of a word. It is safe to assume that this is the 3sg copula.
"the euphonic ა", it is attached to some words, such as არ:negative marker, in front of one syllable words. For example, არა ვარ ⧸ I am not.
ად (ADV)
adverbializer. Drop the final if exists and add ად, otherwise, keep the final vowel and add . This form is used for languages as well, ქართულად:in Georgian. For example, კარგი:goodკარგად:well.
ები
plural. If the word ends in ა or ი, the final vowel is dropped, otherwise it is preserved. For example, გაკვეთილი:lessonგაკვეთილები:lessons and სამუშაო:workplaceსამუშაოები:workplaces
თან
near to, next to, together with (when used with ერთად:together), "chez".Vogt §1.98 When used with a possessive pronoun, such as ჩემი:mine, it indicates towards the location one is at. For example, სახლი ძალიან ცივია! მე მძინავს ჩემ ძაღლთან ერთად. ⧸ The house is cold! I am sleeping (together) with my dog. or ჩემთან მოდის. ⧸ (S/he) is coming to me (e.g. my house, chez moi).
თვის (GEN)
for, around/about, by. This is mutually exclusive with object markings on verbs (ex. -უ-). Can be used with POSS pronouns. For example, ჩემთვის:for me. When used with time phrases, it indicates "by TIME", ex. კვირისთვის:by Sunday.
დან (INST)
from. For example, გერმანია:Germanyგერმანიიდან:from Germany. Note the double იი from the removal of the final -ა and the -ი from the INST case.
მდე (ADV)
up to, till, until. The დ from ADV is dropped. For example, 8 საათიდან 5 საათამდე ⧸ From 8 until 5.
ზე
on, about. Traditionally regarded as a DAT suffix, in modern Georgian, it is unmarked.Kurtsikidze 84 is dropped before ზე. For example,მაგიდაზე:on the table and პირველი საათზე:at 1 o'clock. When used with a verb of motion, it indicates the purpose of the motion. For example, პურზე მივდივარ ⧸ I'm going to get bread.
ში
to, in, into. Traditionally regarded as a DAT suffix, in modern Georgian, it is unmarked.Kurtsikidze 84 is dropped before ში. For example, მანქანა:carმანქანაში:in a/the car and ოფისი:officeოფისში:to/in the office.
სკენ
towards.
too, also. Can only be attached to pronouns. It is also makes a question word into a relative pronoun. For example, მეც:me too.Vogt §2.199
ჯერ
frequency, number of times.
წინ
in front, ago.
უკან
behind.
შუა (DAT)
between.
გან
from how many parts.
  1. ორი დღის დროში
    in two days
  2. ფიგურაზე ვსაუბრობთ.
    We're talking about the statue.
  3. რამდენი კაცისგან შეედგება შენი ჯგუფი?
    How many people does your group consist of?
    -გან indicating "from how many parts/people"

Word Formation

იანი
"...-y". For example, მზემზიანი ⧸ sun → sunny. Often equivalent to the "noun with noun" phrasing in English, such as ქარაქიანი პური:bread with butter (lit. buttery bread).
მოყვარული
fan of, ex. კინომოყვარული:film fan
სა
creates nouns out of other nouns, most often with an additiona -ე or -ო suffix. Generally has the meaning of "the place for the thing" For example, ფული:moneyსაფულე:wallet or კაცი:manსაკაცე:stretcher.Vogt §3.29
უ...ო
without, "...-less". For example, ღრუბელიუღრუბლო ⧸ cloud → cloudless.
უ...ესი
the most X. For example, ყვალეზე ლამაზი:the most beautiful is equivalent to ულამაზესი.

Grammatical Cases

NOM
the nominative case, it is unmarked (i.e the default dictionary case)
GEN (ი)ს
the genitive case, used with certain prepositions or grammar structures. Nouns ending in ი, ა, or ე lose the ending vowel and add ის. All other endings add just ს. Some nouns are exceptions, such as კაფე:café, which is კაფეს in GEN. One can generally distinguish between GEN and DAT because GEN will always have a vowel before the .

Syncope, or the loss of word-internal vowels, can occur in GEN. In particular, when the NOM stem ends in [აეო][ლმნრ], ex. არ or ელ, then the vowel before the ending will be lost. For example, მეგობარი → მეგობრის.

DAT, ACC, POSS
the dative/accusative/possesive case, usually used to indicate the object of a transitive verb.
ERG მ(ა)
the ergative case, this is used with some verbs. Nouns ending in ი drop the ი and decline with მა. All other vowel endings end with მ.
INS თ(ი)
the instrumental case, used to mark a noun that is used to do a verb (ex. I rode the bus-, because the bus is the "instrument" used to ride) or by what something is done (გეგმით:according to the plan). When used with time expressions, it indicates length of time, for example ლონდონში ერთი წლით მოვდივარ ⧸ I am going to London for a year. Nouns ending in ი, ა, or ე lose the ending vowel and add ით. All other endings add თი (მეტროთი:by metro). INS can also experience syncope – see the note under GEN.
ADV (ა)დ
the adverbial case, often fixed phrases, it is the equivalent of "as an X". For example, "As a student-, I dislike homework".
VOC (ვ)
the vocative case, it's uncommon now, used to call to a person, or poetically, to a noun ("oh spring-!). The final -ვ is optional. Words like ბატონო:sir or ქალბატონო:ma'am function as vocative forms. Their nominatives replace the final ო with ი.

Verbs

Verbs, when listed, are listed with the "verbal noun" form, also referred to as the masdar. This is a common dictionary form, but some other dictionaries/phrasebooks may list other forms.

Personal pronouns can be dropped in Georgian, as pronomial indicators person are attached directly to the verb. Verbs take one of two forms of indicating person, either ვ-series or მ-series.

The object of the sentence can also be indicated in the verb construction too. Comrie 2017 breaks this down into a set of rules that can help clear up when an object indicator is used. When an verb agrees with (or as Comrie puts it "indexes") the object, the მ-series markers are used.

For example:

It is clear for when the მ/ვ-series markers are used (ex. მ- is always 1SG and -ს is always 3SG), but when the person is marked with , it is more difficult. Two few things to keep in mind:

  1. If the subject marker does not conflict with the object marker, it will be used. Otherwise, the object marker is the only one used. Thus, გ-ხედავ-ს but not გ-ვ-ხედავ (which would be interpreted as გვ- which is for 1PL).
  2. The object cannot be the same as the subject, meaning გ-ხედავ cannot be "you saw yourself". Reflexiveness is indicated with თავი:head.

Therefore, the strangely ambiguous გ-ხედავ would be analyzed as I see you, because of the two principals above: there is no overt subject marker (so it can be either 1SG – prefix only and thus obfuscated by the object – or 2SG, which is ∅) and the subject and object can never match. Thus, the subject must be 1SG.

ვ-series

Kiziria breaks these into 1st and 3rd conjugation verbs.

Verbs in the ვ-series can be broken down into the following structure, using do in the 3sg.FUT tense.

გააკეთებს {
გა აკეთ ებ
preverb person marker "do" PFSF person marker

These parts are:

Personally, I think that the PFSF is more helpful as a formal structure, than anything practical, due to its variability across verbs. Some verbs don't even have on, so there's that too. Thus, in general, when the PFSF is referred to below, think of it as the ობ, ებ, ავ, etc. syllable that ends a verb in the present tense.

Present (PRS)

  sg pl
1 ვ+stem ვ+stem+თ
2 stem stem+თ
3 stem+ს stem+ენ

+ენ is +ან after stems that end in . An example of the verb to do:კეთები, stem: აკეთებ.

  sg pl
1 აკეთებ აკეთებ
2 აკეთებ აკეთებ
3 აკეთებ აკეთებენ

Future (FUT)

The future tense is formed by attaching a preverb to present tense. The preverb must be memorized.

Some verbs, which Kiziria calls 3rd conjugation verbs, differ slightly from the main. In particular, rather than a preverb, they add ი before the first person marker. Additionaly, the ending (PFSF) will change to ებ.

  sg pl
1 გავაკეთებ გავაკეთებთ
2 გააკეთებ გააკეთებთ
3 გააკეთებს გააკეთებენ

An example of the FUT variant, using ლაპარაკობს:speaks. Note the ending "ობ".

  sg pl
1 ლაპარაკებ ლაპარაკებ
2 ლაპარაკებ ლაპარაკებ
3 ლაპარაკებ ლაპარაკებენ

There are two further exceptions to the variant. მუშაობს:works and ქირაობს:rents both insert a ვ prior to ებ. Thus, მუშავებს:will work.

Imperfect (IMPF)

The imperfect, as described by Kiziria, is for "actions in the past that occurred frequently, habitually, or for certain periods of time"Kiziria 142

The imperfect is formed by appending -დი to the end, before the personal marker. Note the slight difference for 3rd person markers, namely და for the sigular and დნენ for plural.

  sg pl
1 ვაკეთებდი ვაკეთებდი
2 აკეთებდი აკეთებდი
3 აკეთებდა აკეთებდნენ

Optative (OPT)

The optative "conveys a modality of action", that is, whether done with intention, necessity, possibility, desirability, etc.Kiziria 180 To form the optative, drop the PFSF from the future tense and add ო instead.

Kurtsikidze calls this the 2nd Subjunctive. Of note, Kurtsikidze also mentions that the optative plural is used in recipes, for example მოვხარშოთ ცოტა ბრინჯი ⧸ Cook a small amount of rice.Kurtsikidze 147

It often follows forms of უნდა:wants, შეუძლია:is able, მოდი:let's. When მოდი is used, the following verb is in 3pl. When used independently in questions, it gives the sense of "should/shall ... ?".

The subject is in DAT and the direct object is in NOM.

  sg pl
1 გავაკეთ გავაკეთ
2 გააკეთ გააკეთ
3 გააკეთ გააკეთ

Verbs which take rather than in AOR will use rather than in the paradigm above.Kurtsikidze 141

  1. მინდა ქართული ენა ვისწავლო.
    I want to study Georgian.
  2. მას შეუძლია ხაჭაპური გააკეთოს.
    He is able to make khachapuri.
  3. მოდი ვლაპარაკოთ ქართულად!
    Let's speak Georgian!
  4. ვიყიდო ეს კაბა?
    Should I buy this dress?
  5. დავლიოთ ჩაი?
    Shall we have tea?

Aorist (AOR)

The aorist is akin to the English past tense. It is used for completed actions that occurred in the past. The AOR is formed by removing the PFSF from the FUT form and adding ე. Note the slight difference for 3rd person markers, namely ა for the sigular and ეს for plural.

AOR is also used for imparatives, ex. გაიმეორე!:repeat (this)!.

The subject will be in ERG and the direct object will be in NOM.

  sg pl
1 გავაკეთ გავაკეთ
2 გააკეთ გააკეთ
3 გააკეთ გააკეთეს

მ-series

Kiziria refers to these as 4th conjugation verbs.

მ-series verbs have DAT subjects and NOM objects. Many of these verbs in the 3rd person have an initial ჰ, which is dropped in casual speech.

Present (PRS)

  sg pl
1 მ+stem გვ+stem
2 გ+stem გ+stem+თ
3 stem stem+თ

Note that in both 2pl and 3pl, the final -ს is dropped. An example of the verb სურვილი:to want; to wish, stem: სურს.

  sg pl
1 სურს გვსურს
2 სურს სურ
3 სურს სურ

Almost invariably, these verbs take a dative subject, thus მას სურს and მათ სურთ.

Irregular Verbs

ყოფმა - to be

Present Indicative
  sg pl
1 ვარ ვართ
2 ხარ ხართ
3 არის არიან
Past Tense
  sg pl
1 ვიყვი ვიყვით
2 იყივი იყივით
3 იყო იყვნენ
Future Tense
  sg pl
1 ვიქნები ვიქნებით
2 იქნები იქნებით
3 იქნების იქნებიას

ქონა - to have (inanimate object)

DAT subject.

Note: მანქანა:cars are considered animate.

Present Indicative
  sg pl
1 მაქვს გვაქვს
2 გაქვს გაქვთ
3 აქვს აქვთ

ყოლა - to have (animate object)

DAT subject.

Note: მანქანა:cars are considered animate.

Present Indicative
  sg pl
1 მყავს გვყავს
2 გყავს გყათ
3 ჰყავს ჰყავთ

იცის - to know (a thing, a fact)

The first two screeves, thus the commonly used tenses like present and aorist have the subject in the narrative case. The 3rd screeve (such as future subjunctive) has the subject in the dative case. Thus, მას იცის:S/he knows.

სვამს - to drink

სვამს has two different roots. In PRS and IMPF, it is სვამს. In FUT, AOR, and OPT, it is დალევ.

Verbs of going

Verbs of "going" are comprised of a directional prefix, the verb to be, and დი. Kiziria refers to these as 2nd conjugation verbs.

Directional prefixes include:

An example of the conjugation would be, მივდივარ:I go

მივდივარ {
მო დი ვარ
directional prefix 1sg marker "go" to be.1sg
  sg pl
1 მივდივარ მივდივართ
2 მიდიხარ მიდიხართ
3 მიდის მიდიან

The location target of the verb (ex. to the office, from the moon) are marked with +ში for going towards a place and +დან when coming from a place.

  1. საიდან მოდიხარ?
    Where are you coming from?
    საიდან:whence can be thought of as sort of like სად:where + დან:from
  2. მოვდივარ ოფისში.
    I am going to the office.

Verbs of Situation, Condition, or Feeling

This is a broad category of verbs that encompasses verbs such as rains, sits, and is cold. Kurtsikidze describes these types of verbs as "medio-active" and "medio-passive", indicating that they are not quite active and not quite passive. For example, "it rains" is not quite active because there isn't really an actor raining (though one could argue it is the sky).

Verbs expressing weather, such as წვიმს:it rains can also be expressed by {adj} + არის/მოდის. That is, rather than it rains, it would be it is raining.Kurtisikidze, 171

Negation

Verbs can be negated in Georgian in two ways, with არ and ვერ. ვერ implies an inability to complete the action, whereas არ is simply that the action didn't occur. Compare below:

Imparatives are negated with ნუ:don't.

Participles

Future Participles

Future participles are often created with სა-{word}-ელი and indicate an action to be done. For example, სწავლება:learningსასწავლი:to be learned

Expressing Purpose

Purpose can be expressed with the a future participle, most commonly with the future participle in the adverbial case. The future participle is formed by prefixing the root with სა- and the adverbial case is formed with -ად. Using მოგზიურობა:to travel, we get სამოგზიუროდ:for the purpose of traveling. -დ is used here because the root ends in a vowel.

In many cases, and expecially when in the adverbial case, the word can be thought of like the English infinitive.Harris, 155

Occasionally, სა- may occur after the first syllable, such as დალევი:to drinkდასალევად. დასალევად implies drinking alcohol (much as saying "We're going drinking" in English implies the same).

Question Words

ვინ
who
რა
what. When combined with adjective with -ა, it means "how X!" as in "how cute!".Kiziria, 49 რა is often suffixed, such as რაში:in what.
რა ღირს
how much
როგორ
how
როდის
when
რიტომ
why
სად
where, derivative საიდან:whence, from where. Both derive from the same სა- interogative pronomial stem. See Klimov 161-162.
სადაური
from where, often when asking from country of origin
რამდენ
how many
რამდენჯარ
how many times (see +ჯარ in the suffixes)
რა ღირს
how much
რომელი
which
როგორი
what kind
ვისი
whose
რამდენი ხნით
(for) how long
  1. როგორა ხარ?
    How are you?
  2. ვინ არის ეს?
    Who is this?
  3. რა საინტერესოა!
    How interesting!
  4. რომელი საათია?
    What time is it?
    note the 3sg suffix
  5. რომელ საათზე?
    At what time?
  6. რაში ექსპერტი?
    In what are you an expert?
    i.e. what are you good at?

Postpositions

დასაწყისში (GEN)
beginning of.
წინ (GEN)
before, in front of.
მერე (GEN)
after.
მიერ (GEN)
by.
გარეშე (GEN)
without, outside of.
განმავლობაში
during, in the course of.
შორის
among, between.

--EX--|6
რა განსხვავებაა X-ის და Y-ის შორის?
What is the difference between X and Y?
მინისტრის მიერ

--ENDEX--

Numbers

See also the Wikipedia page.
Note that if a quantity is used with a noun, the noun does not decline for the plural. That is ორი კიცი:two men, not ორი კიცები.

Cardinal Numbers

0 — ნული
1 — ერთი
2 — ორი
3 — სამი
4 — ოთხი
5 — ხუთი
6 — ექვსი
7 — შვიდი
8 — რვა
9 — ცხრა
10 — ათი
20 — ოცი

Teens are formed by + 1-9 - + მეტი, ex. 11 → + ერთ + მეტითერთმეტი. Some initial consonants merge with the initial თ, such as + .

11 — თერთმეტი
12 — თორმეტი
13 — ცამეტი
14 — თოთხმეტი
15 — თხუთმეტი
16 — თექვსმეტი
17 — ჩვიდმეტი
18 — თვრამეტი
19 — ცხრამეტი

Anything over 20 is base 20, using 2/3/4 x 20 as the basis. Thus, base - + და + 1-19.

20 — ოცი
21 — ოცდაერთი
40 — ორმოცი
47 — ორმოცდაშვიდი
60 — სამოცი
80 — ოთხმოცი

Cardinal numbers can be emphasized with the suffix -ვე to mean "all X", that is ორივე:all two (of them).Vogt §1.77

Halves are formed with ნახევარი:half and the number, minus -ი. If greater than 1.5, then the amount is unconnected to the noun, ex. სამ-ნახევარი ხაჭაპური:3.5 khachapuris. Otherwise, ნახევარი is simply attached to the noun, ex. ლარ-ნახევარი:1.5 lari.

Ordinal Numbers

1st - პირველი

2-19: მე + # - + . Ex. 13th:მეცამეტე.

20+: base + ordinal version of 1-19 (1 reverts back to ერთი for these numbers). Ex. 21st:ოცდამეერთე.

Fractions

Fractions are formed by adding -დი to ordinal numbers. Ex. 1/4th:მეოთხედი. 1/2 is more commonly ნახევარი.

Time

Time Vocabulary

The Georgian week starts on Monday.

Seasons are:

Months are:

Dates are given in the form "day-month-year". Thus, 25 აპრილი ორი ათას ცხრამეტი:25 April 2019. Note the dropped -ი in ათასი. A response to "what date is it?" will end in the GEN for the year (thus ..., ცხრამეტის).

Time Expressions

General time expressions (in the morning, in the evening, on Monday, etc.) are marked with the DAT or INST, thus morning:დილაin the morning:დილას. For example, დილას არის მზე. ⧸ It is sunny in the morning. When used to describe relative time (ex. AM or PM), the expression is in GEN. For example, დილის ცხრა საათია ⧸ It is 9am.

When discussing a specific day, such as March 3rd, the expression is in DAT. For example, სამ მარტს ⧸ March, 3rd. Notice the final -ი is dropped in სამი, as it is an -ი adjective in the dative case. See also minutes 31-59 described below.

Expressions such as "2 days ago" or "in 3 years" are expressed with წინ:prior and შემდეგ:next, respectively. The time expression is in GEN. For example, საუსტად ორი წლის წინ ⧸ Exactly two years ago or ერთი თვეს შემდეგ ⧸ In one month.Taranov, 32

Full hours are simply with the cardinal number plus is # hours:საათია. The exception is 1 o'clock is "1st hour", პირველი საათია. Thus, 2 o'clock:ორი საათია. In spoken Georgian, the 12-hour clock is used, whereas written Georgian uses a 24-hour clock.

Minutes within hours can be expressed literally as "1 hour + 15 minutes", but that sounds unnatural. Instead, minutes should be given relative to the hour that owns them – in Georgia, the "owning" hour is the hour that has yet to pass on the clock. So a time like 1:35, all of those 35 minutes below to 2, since 2 has not yet been hit on the clock.

This ownership is expressed in two different ways, depending on if it's before or after the 30 minute mark.

1-29
hour's (GEN +ს) + #, so 1:24 would be "2's 24 minutes", thus ორის ოცდაოთხი
30
hour's (GEN +ს) + half:ნახევარი, ex. 1:30 = 2's half = ორის ნახევარი
31-59
hour (DAT -ი +ს) + lacks + #, so 1:50 would be "2 lacks 10 minutes", thus ორს აკლია ათი. The 3rd person form lacks:აკლია takes the dative case for its subject, hence the dropping that does not occur with the possessive used for 1-29.

Being "at" a time also differs between 0-30 and 31-59.

0
drop -ი in the hour and add +ზე to the hour, at 3:00:სამ საათზე
1-30
add +ზე to the minutes, at 1:30:ორის ნახევარზე
31-59
add რომ after the hour, at 1:50:ორს რომ აკლია ათი

Situations

Useful Phrases

მე მქვია... – I am called...
ქართული იცი? – Do you know Georgian?
ცოტა ვიცი – I know a little
გაიმეორეთ – Please say again
ვერ გავიგე – I don't understand it
როგორ არის ქართულად "x"? – What is X in Georgian?
"x" ქართულად არის "y" – X in Georgian is Y
მე ვსწავლობ ქართულ ენას – I am learning Georgian

Restaurants

ინებეთ - "here you are"
თუ შეიძლება - "if I/we may", used at the end of a sentence to politely order something. When placed at the beginning of a sentence, drop "თუ"
გეტეყვა - polite request form, a little archaic
მოგვთან - bring to us
არაფრის – you're welcome
რას შემოგვთავაზები?
რით შემიძლია გემსახუროთ? - how may I serve you? (pol. to a customer)
DAT გაგვიმარჯოს! - format of a toast, ex. მეგობრებს გაგვიმარჯოს! Cheers to our friends!

Sentence Structures

Simultaneous Action (როცა or თან...თან)

To indicate simultaneous action, ex. "I was at class, when Wes was on vacation", one uses როცა to stand in for the when/while part of the English sentence. Both clauses of the sentence should be in the same tense.

Alternatively, the two actions can both be preceded by თან.

  1. მე წავალ საქართველოში, როცა ვისშავლი ქართულს.
    I will go to Georgia, while I am learning Georgian.
  2. თან მღერის თან ცეკვავს.
    She is dancing and singing (at the same time).

Conditional Sentences (თუ)

For sentences expressing, "X will happen, if Y", one uses თუ:if. For example, მოვდივარ, თუ გინდა:I'm coming, if you want.

Expressing Desire (მინდა)

When expressing what one wants to do, both verbs – to want and the desired action – are conjugated. Thus, ...იმიტომ, რომ მინდა ვჯამო... ⧸ ...because I wanted to eat....

Options (თუ/ან or არც...არც)

There are two words for or in Georgian: თუ and ან. They function in a similar manner to 还是 and 或者 in Chinese, that is თუ is used in questions and ან is used in statements.

The negative version, neither...nor, is expressed with არ(ც)...არც.

  1. მიდიხარ ოფისში თუ ბიბლიოთეკში?
    Are you going to the office or to the library?
  2. მას ჰყავს ერთი ან ორი და, მაგრამ მე ზუსტად არ ვიცი.
    He has one or two sisters, but I don't know exactly.

Reported Speech (-ო)

Reported speech is always given in the tense/mode as if the person who is being quoted is actually saying the phrase. The -ო marker is attached to the verb, often at the end of the sentence.

  1. გუშინ დამირეკა და მთხოვა თუ შეგიძლია ბაზარში გამიყვანეო.
    Yesterday she called and asked "if it is possible for you to take me to the bazaar?"
    where me refers to the individual doing the asking.

Sometimes this, sometimes that (ხან..., ხან...)

When two things happen, but not necessarily at the same time (sometimes I ride my bike, sometimes I take the bus), use ხან before each "thing" that is being done.

(Not) as X, as you (ისე...როგორც)

This structure can be used to express both positive and negative comparisons. If the first clause is negated (არ ვარ, for instance), then it will be "Not as X as whoever", whereas if it is a positive clause, then the comparison is "As X as whoever".

  1. მაგრამ არ ვარ ისე დაკავებული როგორც შენ ხარ.
    But I am not as busy as you are.

The Versatile კი

კი performs 3 functionsKiziria 128:

  1. It is a neutral form of saying yes.
  2. "This/that one". When a noun has already been stated, კი can refer back to the same noun later in the sentence. For example, ეს ჩემი ლექსიკონია, ეს კი შენი ⧸ This is my dictionary, that one is yours.
  3. "However". When two clauses of a sentence contrast, კი serves as a contrastive marker. For example, გუშინ კარგი ამინდი იყო, დღეს კი წვიმს ⧸ Yesterday was good weather, today, however, it's raining.

Impersonal Sentences

Use 3pl, for example, ეს ხიდი ათი წლის ჭინ დაიწყეს ⧸ This bridge was built 10 years ago.

Adjectives

Adjectives can be divided between consonant-final and vowel-final adjectives. Vowel-final is any adjective ending in ა, ე, უ, ო. Consonant-final is anything else (including -ი, such as დიდი:big). When paired with a noun, vowel-final adjectives do not decline, whereas consonant-final will decline in ERG and VOC cases, and will drop -ი in DAT and ADV.Kurtsikidze 53 See, for example, examples of "at a time", where the final ი in the time is dropped.

National Adjectives

Comparison

More X is expressed with უფრო and most X is expressed with ყველაზე. For example, ცხელი → უფრო ცხელი → ყველაზე ცხელი ⧸ warm → warmer → warmest. Than, in the sense of "heavier than Bob", is ვიდრე. ის უფრო მძიმე, ვიდრე გიორგი ⧸ He is heavier than Giorgi.

Comparisons can also be done with the suffix -ზე, in the form of {noun1} {noun2}-ზე adjective/phrase. For example, შენ ჩემზე კარგად ლაპარაკობ ინლისურად ⧸ You are better at speaking English than I am.

Miscellaneous

Dialect Note

In a Gori accent, many individuals drop the final , in არის:is, as well as adding to words such as სად:where.

Bibliography

Dictionary

le flaneur's georgian dictionary