Last updated 2018-07-27 23:01:58
Words like これ or それ become この or その when modifying a noun, ex. この
Xちら are "X way", such as
There is no conjugation of verbs in the present tense. Negation of ます verbs is done with ません, ex. 話しません. When negating a noun or adjective ("It is not a book"), then じゃありません is used.
The form of verbs sometimes give an indication of what type of action is being performed. For example, verbs with せ indicate that subject is having someone do something, ex.
見せる:to show (you are making someone see). Verbs with え are the potential form, such as
見える:to be visible.
Do you speak English?
No, that's not right.
Contrast with そうです。:That's right.
There are students in the store.
います, rather than あります, is used with animate nouns
- ます → でした
Suzuki-san was a student.
To find the
|ない||書||か||ない||(do not write)|
|ます||書||き||ます||(to write, pol.)|
|辞書||書||く||∅||(to write, neut.)|
Notice how the vowels go from a→i→u.
Change ます into る. Thus, たべます→食べる.
- 来る:to come
- する:to be
- question particle
かんこうですか？:are you going sightseeing?
- existential particle, used with あります to indicate what exists. DBJG describes these as the objects of stative transitive verbs (ex. to have) and transitive adjectives.DBJG, 120 7e
- a subject marker, for subject which are not the topic. In particular, for WH-words, such as 何, since they can never be topics.DBJG, 119
- locative particle
- locative particleDBJG, 299, used with time phrases, ex.
月曜日に:on Mondayand あります。
- locative particle, このちずの:on this map
- number of things
- object particle, follows the object of the clause
- topic particle, pronounced "wa" rather than "ha"
- connector between two nouns (like "and"), comitative particle (i.e. "with X")
- attached to the end of sentences to inform the listener of something or assure them of somethingDBJG, 543
There is a bookstore
が follows what exists, in this case a 本屋.
Is there a bookstore near here?
Where is the Tokyo Hotel on this map?
の functions both as the possessive and as the locative particle in this example
I watch movies at home.
I, with my friend, went to the store.
Location prepositions (such as 'in front of') occur after the noun. So I guess they're actually postpositions. For example,
店の前:in front of the store.
Where are you from?
- where (pol., inf.)
- what kind of
- how much
- either なに if standalone or なん if attached to something (ex, 何時？:what time?)
- not really a question word, per se, but used to ask the equivalent of "do you have...?" questions
Where is the toilet?
How much is that pen?
Do you have maps?
How is it?
Would you like dessert?
Note: this is not comprehensive of all possible politeness forms. Instead, it is just the default politeness that my learning materials have been using.
All i-adjectives end in an explicit い, such as 高い, but not all adjectives ending in い are i-adjectives, such as 嫌い. These exceptions are few. They can be used in front of a noun without change, ex.
高いシャツ:an expensive t-shirt.
いい:goodis the conjugated form. The root form is よい.
- Negation occurs with くない, ex. 面白い→面白くない (interesting→uninteresting).
- Past tense
- Past tense is done with かった, ex. 高い→高かった (expensive→was expensive). This can also be done with negated adjectives, ex. 高くない→高くなかった (inexpensive→was inexpensive).Tae Kim, State of Being - Past
These adjectives require a な between the adjective and the noun, ex.
綺麗な人:a pretty person.
- indicates the preceding kanji should be repeated, ex. 日々:daily. More formally called
- "I like..."
好き, which is like a na-adjective.
I like your bosom ;)
time in the day:
It is now one o'clock
Measure words and quantity appear after the noun, the opposite of Chinese. That is, (5円絵葉書)(3)(枚), rather than (3)(张)(5元明信片).
- After typing, double-tapping space will bring up more options to select
^1after selecting a character will bring up similar characters. I have yet to find a use for this.
^2after selecting characters will bring up characters comprised of those characters. Ex. 気分 +
- きごう + double-tap space will bring up a list of symbols, like this thing 〆.
le flaneur's japanese dictionary