learn reading through lithuanian: ronja chapter 1

Last updated 2018-01-13 23:13:30

This is a work in progress! Read at your own peril!

Eng translation - Patricia Crampton

Participle Types

Active Present Participle – indicates the action or condition of the subject365 Verbs, 24
Active Past Participle – indicates the condition or state of the subject, what the subject had done before the main action, or what the subject had said they've done in the past365 Verbs, 25
Active Future Participle – indicates what someone intends to do in the future.365 Verbs, 26
Pusdalyvis (Active Half-Participles) – indicates a secondary action performed at the same time as the primary action365 Verbs, 31
Gerund – indicates an action carried out at the same time as the primary action, but performed by a different actor365 Verbs, 32


If a tense, ex. PRS or PST is unmarked for number, then it is the 3rd person (which does not differ for singular or plural).

Chapter 1

nakti, kai Ronja gimė, kalnus drebino baisi perkūnija,
that.ACC night.NOM, when Ronja born.PST, mountain.PL.ACC quaver.PST terrible.SG.F thunder.NOM,
On the night that Ronia was born a thunderstorm was raging over the mountains,

drebinti:to quaver (a verb which has an agent) is similar to drebėti, which is reflextive.

audra taip šelo, kad visi pikti padarai,
storm.NOM so rampage.PST, that all.NOM angry.PL.M creature.PL,
such a storm, that all the goblinfolk
kurių knibždėte knibždėjo Matiso kalne, persigandę sulindo į savo urvus ir slėpynes,
which.GEN EMPH swarm.PST Matt.GEN mountain.LOC, be frightened.PART-APST creep.PST to REFL.3 cave.PL.ACC and hiding place.PL.ACC,
in Matt's Forest crept back in terror to their holes and hiding places.

knibždėte:swarm.EMPH is a type of word called būdinys or deverbal. "They are used with verbs of the same root to intensify or emphasize their meaning."Ambrazas §6.13; Daiva. It is formed by adding +te/+tinai. In this case it can be thought of as "swarmingly swarmed," which has no equivalent in the English text.
persigandę>persigąsti:to have a fright This is the past tense plural of the active particple, which is formed from the PST-3, minus the ending, plus an ending for person and gender.365 Verbs, 24 It indicates the condition or state of a living thing in the past.
sulindo>sulįsti:for many to creep in, įlįsti meaning to "creep into" and the su prefix indicating it is done as a group.

tiktai plėšriosios girių skraidūnės negalėjo atsidžiaugti žaibais,
only raptorial.DEF.PL.F forest.GEN flyer.PL.NOM able.NEG.PST not get enough.REFL.INF lightening.INS,
Only the fierce harpies preferred stormy weather to any other

plėšriosios>plėšrus:raptorial is a definite adjective (as compared to a simple adjective), meaning "the raptorial X".Ambrazas §2.34, 158 Plėšrus could also be translated as blood-thirsty or carnivorous, but raptorial here is more harpy-like.
atsidžiaugti:to not get enough, thus negalėjo atsidžiaugti žaibais means "not able [double negative] to get enough of the lightening". atsidžiaugti takes kuo, hense žaibais.

todėl, visa gerkle rėkdamos, suko ratus aplink plėšikų pilį Matiso kalne.
thus, all.INS throat.INS shout.PART-P.PL.F make turns.PST around robber.PL.GEN castle.ACC Matt.GEN mountain.LOC
and flew, shrieking and hooting, around the robbers' stronghold on Matt's mountain.

suko ratus is comprised of circle.{PST} wheel.{PL}.{ACC}
rėkdamos>rėkti:to shout is a type of adverbial participal called pusdalyvis and it is used to indicate "a secondary action carried out during the 1st action".365 Verbs, 31 In this case, the shouting is the secondary action to the circling of the castle. It is conjugated for person and gender.Ambrazas, 327
The feminine nominative and the feminine instrumental of visa are the same.

Luvisa, gulėdama patale ir laukdama kūdikio, troško ramybės, todėl tarė Matisui:
Lovis, lie.PART-P.SG.F bed.LOC and wait.PART-P.SG.F baby.GEN desire.PST peace.SG.GEN, so say.PST Matt.DAT:
Their noise distrubed Lovis, who was lying within, preparing to give birth, and she said to Matt,
Nubaidyk tas šlykščias skraidūnes, man reikia tylos, juk pati negirdžiu, dainuoju!
scare away.IMP that.PL.F.ACC disgusting.PL.F.ACC flyer.PL.ACC, 1SG.DAT need.PRS quiet.ACC, yet.EMPH NEG myself.EMPH hear.NEG.1SG.PRS what.SG.ACC sing.1SG.PRS!
"Drive the hell-harpies away and let me have some quiet. Otherwise I can't hear what I'm singing!"

The nu in nubaidyk indicates it is a definite action, like 到 in Chinese
juk is an emphatic partical and can also mean yet.Ambrazas §7.13

tikrųjų Luvisa dainavo, ruošdamasi gimdyti.
In fact Lovis sing.PST, prepare.PART-P.REFL.SG.F birth.INF.
The fact was that Lovis liked to sing while she was having her baby.
Taip, girdi esą lengviau, o ir kūdikis būsiąs linksmesnis,
Yes, hear.PRS be.PART-APRS.PL.M easy.COMP, but also baby.NOM be.PART-AFUT.1SG.M happy,
It made things easier, she insisted, and the baby would probably be all the jollier

esą is a present plural active participle of būti. Not sure how to translate it, but I think it used here to indicate the oblique mood, e.g. hearsay or a doubtful action.365 Verbs, 24; Ambrazas §5.107 & §5.51 Meaning something like "Yes, she hears it's apparently easier".

jeigu ateisąs į šį pasaulį su daina.
if come.PART-AFUT.1SG.M into this.ACC world.ACC with song.INS.
if it arrived on earth to the sound of a song.

ateisiąs is a future active participle of eiti. What someone intends to do in the future.365 Verbs, 26 This is used here, rather than the future tense, to indicate that it's not a given that the baby will be born (or at least not born easily).

Matisas pasiėmė lanką ir paleido kelias strėles pro šauldymo angą.
Matt take.PST bow.ACC and loose.PST some arrow.PL through shooting.GEN hole.ACC
Matt took his crossbow and shot off a few arrows through one of the arrow slits of the fort.
Nešdinkitės šalin, bjaurybės, suriko jis.
get out.2PL.IMP away ugliness.PL, scream.PST 3SG.NOM
"Be off with you, harpies!" he shouted.

ugliness here implying one who is ugly.

Šiąnakt turiu sulaukti kūdikio, argi nesuprantat, žiežulos nelemtos!
tonight 1SG.NOM have.1SG.PRS wait.INF child.GEN, really understand.NEG.2PL harpy.PL, ill-fated.F.PL
"I'm going to have a baby tonight – get that into your heads, you hags!"

argi is what Ambrazas describes as a compound particle, which is now mostly used for emphases.Ambrazas §7.3
nesuprantat is missing the common e at the end, but it is valid to not include it.

Ho ho, ar girdit, šiąnakt jis turės vaiką, suklykė skraidūnės,
ho ho, QP hear.2PL, tonight 3SG.NOM have.FUT child.ACC, scream.PST flier.PL.NOM
"Ho, ho, he's going to ahve a baby tonight," hooted the harpies.

Like nesuprantat above, girdit is missing the e of the 2nd person plural ending.

perkūnijos vaiką, tikriausiai mažytį ir šlykštų, ho ho!
thunder.GEN child.ACC, probably tiny.M.SG.ACC and disgusting.M.SG.ACC, ho ho
"A thunder-and-lightening baby, small and ugly it'll be, ho, ho!"

See Ambrazas §2.27, page 79 for more fun with adjectival declensions like for mažytį and šlykštų.

Matisas dar kartą paleido kelias strėles tiesiai į būrį,
Matt once again.ACC loose.PST some arrow.PL straight into 3PL.GEN group.ACC,
Then Matt shot again, straight into the flock

dar kartą is in the accusative because it is a time phrase.

bet šios tik nusikvatojo ir,
but this.F.GEN only guffaw.PST and,
but they simply jeered at him

šios refers to the group in the line before.

piktai klykdamos, nuskrido tolyn palei pat medžių viršūnes.
angrily scream.PART-APRS, fly away.PRS towards alongside tree.PL.GEN top.PL.ACC
and flew off across the treetops, hooting angrily.

pat is used here as a strengthener of the prepositing.
palei Ambrazas §2.48 "relative to a linear object", e.g. parallel to

Tuo metu, kai Luvisa dainuodama gimdė, o Matisas kaip galėdamas baidė skraidūnes,
hereupon, when Lovis sing.PART-P birth.PST, and Matt ? able.PART-P scare away.PST flier.PL.ACC,
While Lovis lay there, giving birth and singing, and while Matt quelled the wild harpies as best he could,
jo plėšikai sėdėjo didžiojoje akmeninėje menėje, valgė,
3SG.GEN robber.PL sit.PST large.F.SG.LOC stone.F.SG.LOC hall.LOC, eat.PST
his robbers were sitting by the fire down in the great stone hall, eating,
gėrė ir triukšmavo ne mažiau kaip girios skraidūnės.
drink.PST and make noise.PST NEG less than wild.F.PL filer.PL
drinking and behaving as rowdily as the harpies themselves.

girius is given as an archaic adjective.

Juk reikėjo nors veikti belaukiant, nes visi dvylika laukė
but need.PST anything.ACC do.INF wait.PART-GPRS, because all 12 wait.PST
After all, they had to do something while they waited, and all twelve of them were waiting

be in belaukiant doesn't have much meaning. Daiva indicates that it slightly reinforces the sense of waiting.

kaip ten baigsis bokšto kambarėlyje.
how there finish.FUT tower.GEN room.LOC.
for what was about to happen up there in the tower room.
Mat, kiek jie minė, Matiso kalne pirmą kartą turėjo gimti kūdikis.
For, how 3SG.NOM remember.PST, Matt.GEN castle.LOC first.ACC time.ACC have.PST birth.INF child.NOM
No child had ever been born in Matt's Fort in all their robber days there.

minti:to remember is an older form of prisiminti.

O labiausiai laukė Peras Plikakatis.
And most of all wait.PST Noddle-Pete
Noddle-Pete was waiting most of all.

No idea what a Noddle-Pete is.

Kad tik greičiau parbėgtų tas mažasis plėšikas, pasakė jis.
that only quickly run back.SBJV that.M.SG small robber, say.PST 3SG.NOM.
"That robber baby had better come soon," he said.

The subjunctive here is used to express the conditional, "so that it could...".

jau senas, sukriošęs ir veikiai baigsis mano plėšikiškas gyvenimas.
1SG.NOM already old, shake.PART-APST and quickly finish.FUT 1SG.POSS robber life.
"I'm old and rickety, and my robbing days will soon be over.

plėšikiškas is an adjective here.
I think sukriošęs is derived from the verb sukriošti:to shake, but the dictionary gives it as standalone, meaning dodering.

Baisiai norėčiau pamatyti naująjį plėšikų atamaną,
terribly want.SBJV see.INF new.DEF.ACC robber.PL.GEN chief.ACC,
It would be fine to see a new robber chief here
o tada ramiai galėsiu drožti į aną pasaulį.
and then calmly can.1SG.FUT whittle.INF in the next world.
before I am finished."

drožti į aną pasaulį is an idiom equivalent to "kick the bucket" or "buy the farm".

Vos jis šitaip tarė, atsivėrė durys, ir įgriuvo Matisas, kone paklaikęs džiaugsmo.
as soon as 3SG.NOM this way speak.PST, open up.PST door, and tumble in.PST Matt, almost make terrible.PART-APST from happiness.GEN
He had scarcely stopped speaking when the door open and Matt rushed in, quite witless with delight.

paklaikęs, similar to sukriošęs I think is derived from paklaikti:to make terrible. This would fall under the first usage of the past active participle, which describes the condition of a person.

Nesitverdamas kailyje keliais šuoliais aplėkė pusratį viduriu menės ir užriko nesavu balsu:
not know what to do with oneself'.PART-P serveral jump.INS 'run around.PST semicircle.ACC middle.INS hall.GEN and scream out.PST untypical voice.INS
He raced all the way around the hall, leaping high with joy and shrieking like a madman.